# Project Euler 32

More pandigitality. Or whatever it’s called.

39 x 186 = 7254

And that is interesting, because 39 186 7254 is pandigital. As in all the digits 1 to 9 is represented exactly once.

The task is: Find all the products, where multiplicand (39), multiplier (186) and product (7254) is 1 through 9 pandigital.

First question I need to answer is:

How many digits can there be in the multiplicand and multiplier?

If there is 1 digit in the multiplicand, there has to be 4 digits in the multiplier, and 4 in the product.

If there is only 3 in the multiplier, we would have to have 5 digits in the product, which is impossible when we multiply a 1 digit number with a 3 digit number.

And if there was 5 digits in the multiplier, we would get 5 digits in the product, bringing the total number of digits in the identity to 11.

Therefore: If there is 1 digit in the multiplicand, there has to be 4 digits in the multiplier. We will get some products with 5 digits, but we’ll filter them out.

What if there are 2 digits in the multiplicand?

Then there has to be 3 digits in the multiplier, and 4 in the the product.

If there are 2 digits in the multiplier, the highest number of digits we can get in the product, is 4. And then we would only have 8 digits in total.

If on the other hand we have 2 digits in the multiplicand, and 4 digits in the multiplier, we would get 5 digits in the product, bringing the total number of digits to 11.

So. There must be 1 or 2 digits in the multiplicand. And 4 or 3 digits respectively in the multiplier.

And there must never be more than 4 digits in the product.

Lets begin by making all possible combinations of multiplicands and multipliers.

```
multiplicand <- 1:9
multiplier <- 1023:9876
res1 <- expand.grid(multiplicand,multiplier)
multiplicand <- 10:98
multiplier <- 102:987
res2 <- expand.grid(multiplicand,multiplier)
testcases <- rbind(res1,res2)
```

All possibilities for 1 digit in the multiplicand, combined with all possibilities for a 4-digit multiplier.

Combined (rbind) with all possibilities for 2-digit multiplicands, and all possibilites for 3-digit multipliers.

Next I’ll need a function that returns TRUE if its input it 1 throug 9 pandigital:

```
isPan <- function(x){ (length(unique(setdiff(unlist(strsplit(x,split="")),0)))==9)&&(nchar(x)==9) }
isPan <- Vectorize(isPan)
```

I also need it to be vectorized. This is not at perfect way to do it. But I can’t figure out another way.

And now we’ll use the lovely pipes to pass all the test cases through a series of functions:

```
library(dplyr)
answer <- testcases %>%
mutate(product= Var1*Var2) %>%
filter(product <= 9999) %>%
mutate(concat = paste(Var1, Var2, product, sep="")) %>%
filter(isPan(concat)) %>%
select(product) %>%
unique() %>%
sum()
```

First I make a new column with the mutate() function, called product, that is the multiplication of Var1 and Var2 (multiplicand and multiplier respectively)

Next I filter out all the product that has more than 4 digits.

Next I make another new column, where I paste together the multiplicand, the multiplier and the product.

I filter, using my isPan() function. If the concatenation is pandigital, I keep it. Otherwise I throw the row away.

Now I only have rows where the concatenation of multiplicand, multiplier and product is pandigital.

But I’m actually only interested in the product, so I select the column “product”

Some of the products are repeated, unique takes care of that.

And then I just need to sum them.

# Lessons learned

Vectorized functions are essential for this methodology. But can be difficult to write.