# Project Euler 38

Multiplying 192 with 1, 2 and 3:

192 x 1 = 192

192 x 2 = 384

192 x 3 = 576

Concatenating the products, we get 192384576. That number is 1-9 pandigital (as in all digits 1 to 9 is represented in the number exactly one time).

The same can be achieved by multiplying 9 with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. That gives us the pandigital concatenation 918273645.

We should now find the largest 1-9 pandigital number, formed as a concatenation in the described way, by multiplying an integer with 1, 2,…n, where n > 1.

Testing with 918273645. Nope, that is not the solution. That would be too easy 🙂

OK. Lets call the integer we’re multiplying, m.

And as we’re using R, lets call the numbers we are multiplying it with, for n, as in the vector 1:n.

The concatenated product will have to have 9 as its first digit. The first digits comes from multiplying m with 1. Therefore, the first digit in m must be 9.

We need to end up with a total of 9 digits in the concatenated product. If m has two digits, multiplying with 1 will give us two digits in the result. Multiplying with 2 will give us 3 digits in the result (any two digit number larger than 50 will, multiplied by 2, give a three digit result. And we know that m should begin with 9).

Multiplying with 3 will give another 3 digits in the result, bringing us to at total of 8. Multiplying with 4 brings the total number of digits in the concatenated result to 11. There can be only 9.

Chosing a three digit m gives similar problems.

But a four digit m, with 9 as the first digit, gives us four digits multiplying by 1 and five when we multiply by 2. Giving us a total of 9 digits in the result.

What we know so far:

• The integer we have to multiply has four digits, and begins with 9.
• We will have to multiply it by 1 and 2. Or 1:2.

That should be possible to brute-force.

Multiply all four digit integers where the first digit is 9 by 1:2.

Collapse the results to a single string.

Keep all the mumbers that are pandigital.

Take the maximum of it.

I don’t need to check all the numbers. I know that the first four digits must be larger than 9182, since this is the first four digits in the example. The highest number is not 9999, it is 9876.

``````t <- 9183:9876
``````

Using the purrr library:

``````library(purrr)
keep(function(x) length(unique(setdiff(unlist(strsplit(paste(x*1:2,collapse=""),split="")),0)))==9)
``````

Ok, lets stop there. What am I doing?

I pass all the possible four digit integers to keep(). keep() applies a function to each of the integers, and keeps the ones where the function evaluates to true.

The function in question is an anonymous function of x:

length(unique(setdiff(unlist(strsplit(paste(x*1:2,collapse=“”),split=“”)),0)))==9

x, the integer from t, is multiplied wiht 1:2. That results in a vector where the first element is x multiplyed by 1, and the second x multiplied by 2.

That is then put into the paste() function, with the parameter collapse=“”. The result is that the vector from just before, is concatenated to just one string.

That string is splitted by strsplit into individual characters. The result is a list. Which is bloody annoying to work with.
So I put everything into unlist(), that returns a vector.

Setdiff(x,0) removes any zeroes from that vector.

Having removed the zeroes, unique() returns all the unique values in the vector. If there is 9, the number is 1 to 9 pandigital.

And if it is, the integer is kept by keep.

It doesn’t really give me the result. It returns the four digit integers beginning with 9, that, multiplied by 1:2 and concatenated gives a pandigital result.

But the largest of them is the integer I should multiply by 1:2. So lets expand the code a bit:

``````answer <- t %>%
keep(function(x) length(unique(setdiff(unlist(strsplit(paste(x*1:2,collapse=""),split="")),0)))==9) %>%
max() %>%
(function(x) x*1:2) %>%
(function(x) paste(x, collapse="")) %>%
as.numeric()
``````

max() gives me the largest of the four digit integers. The next function mulitplies it by 1:2. After that, the result is collapsed. And finally converted to numeric by as.numeric(). Not really necessary, but I’m doing it anyway.

# Lessons learned

When using pipes to do stuff, anonymous functions are useful. But should be put into parantheses.